It is related to employment of candidates with necessary criteria i.e. skill, knowledge etc. it includes the following things:
- Job analysis- information about the responsibilities and operations of a job is collected.
- Human resource planning- it is a process of identifying the number employees needed in an organisation at proper time and with proper qualification to perform jobs that will satisfy the individuals involved.
- Recruitment- it is a process of approaching and searching of potential employees to apply for jobs in the organisation.
- Selection- it is to check if the candidate’s qualification, attitude, skill, experience, and knowledge is suitable for the job.
- Placement- it is a process of allocating the right job to the right candidate i.e. to position the right candidate at right level
- Induction/orientation- the employee is introduced to the surroundings, rules and regulations, policies, vision and mission, etc. of the organisation.
- Internal mobility- it is related to the movement of employees within the organisation i.e. transfer and promotion is called internal mobility. Whereas, retirement, resignation, termination are related to external mobility.
It is about improving and developing the skills, ability, values, and attitude of an employee at an individual and organisational level. It includes:
- Training: it is a continuous process to enhance the skills, knowledge and ability of an employee to fulfil organisational and personal goals.
- Executive development: it develops the managerial skills and capabilities through various programmes.
- Career planning and development: it about planning and implementations of a career plan through training, education, etc.
- Human resource development: it is about developing the organisation as a whole thereby creating a climate that develops the capability of an employee to achieve organisational and individual goals.
Motivation and compensation:
It is to inspire the employees and motivate them to do better through incentives and rewards.
- Job design- organising tasks and responsibilities to improve the productivity of the work is the motive of a job design. It is done to coordinate and match the needs of an employee with the organisational requirements.
- Work scheduling- it is important to motivate employees through structured work schedule. An employee needs to be challenged. It can be done through flexi-time, work sharing, home assignments, etc.
- Motivation- it can be done through financial and non-financial rewards. Along with ability it is important to have enough motivation, which can be done through various rewards.
- Job evaluation- it is necessary to evaluate a job on basis of monetary returns, i.e. which job should be paid more than others in an organisation, to establish equality between various jobs.
- Performance appraisal- it is a process of evaluating the performance of an employee to determine the behaviour of employee’s on the basis of qualitative and quantitative aspects. It is evaluate the behaviour and potential of an employee to plan any improvement.
- Compensation administration: it is a process of determining how much an employee should be paid. It must be at a low-cost, attractive and fair to the employees.
- Incentives and benefits: the additional benefits offered based on actual performance. Other than certain required benefits like insurance, social security, workmen’s compensation fund, etc. many organisations have been offering other benefits and incentives to motivate their employees.
It is relating to maintenance of psychological and physical health of an various measures like:
- Health and safety: work environment must protect an employee from physical hazards. Measures for an individual’s safety and health must be taken. The well-being of an employee must be improved and preserved.
- Employee welfare: it includes facilities and enmities within and outside the organisation, it includes facilities like, housing, transportation, education etc.
- Social security measure: along with the fringe benefits management also provides certain benefits like: workmen’s compensation fund, sickness and medical benefits, maternity benefits to women employees, dependent benefits etc.
It tries to integrate the organisational goals with employee aspirations though measures like:
- Grievance redressal: issues amongst the employees relating to wages, working hours and conditions etc. are to be identified by the manager and corrected.
- Discipline: rule, regulations and procedures are deemed to be followed by an organisation to achieve the objectives of an organisation.
- Teams and teamwork: it is important to co-operate and coordinate with one another in an organisation for achievement of organisational goals. Teamwork creates a positive environment and increases worker interaction.
- Collective bargaining: it is contract between the management and the labour union, prepared after a lot of proposals and counter proposals. It is related wages, working hours, conditions, benefits, rest, grievance procedure etc.
- Employee participation and empowerment: it is relate to involving the employees at the lower level in the decision making process. By doing so the employees can understand the organisations motives clearly and can give immediate response thereby improving the quality of decisions realty. The employees also feel important and respected, which will ultimately lead to job satisfaction.
- Trade and employees association: trade union is an association or group or individuals or employees with the objective of protecting the employees from exploitation or harassment. It also provides economic and social benefits to the employees. Unions play a very important and powerful role in an organisation.