- Optimal use of natural resources:
International trade helps each country to make optimum use of its natural resources. Each country can concentrate on production of those goods for which its resources are best suited. Wastage of resources is avoided.
- Availability of all types of goods:
It enables a country to obtain goods which it cannot produce or which it is not producing due to higher costs, by importing from other countries at lower costs.
Foreign trade leads to specialisation and encourages production of different goods in different countries. Goods can be produced at a comparatively low-cost due to advantages of division of labour.
- Advantages of large-scale production:
Due to international trade, goods are produced not only for home consumption but for export to other countries also. Nations of the world can dispose of goods which they have in surplus in the international markets. This leads to production at large-scale and the advantages of large-scale production can be obtained by all the countries of the world.
- Stability in prices:
International trade irons out wild fluctuations in prices. It equalizes the prices of goods throughout the world (ignoring cost of transportation, etc.)
- Exchange of technical know-how and establishment of new industries:
Underdeveloped countries can establish and develop new industries with the machinery, equipment and technical know-how imported from developed countries. This helps in the development of these countries and the economy of the world at large.
- Increase in efficiency:
Due to international competition, the producers in a country attempt to produce better quality goods and at the minimum possible cost. This increases the efficiency and benefits to the consumers all over the world.
- Development of the means of transport and communication:
International trade requires the best means of transport and communication. For the advantages of international trade, development in the means of transport and communication is also made possible.
- International co-operation and understanding:
The people of different countries come in contact with each other. Commercial intercourse amongst nations of the world encourages exchange of ideas and culture. It creates co-operation, understanding, and cordial relations amongst various nations.
- Ability to face natural calamities:
Natural calamities such as drought, floods, famine, earthquake etc., affect the production of a country adversely. Deficiency in the supply of goods at the time of such natural calamities can be met by imports from other countries.
- Reducing Risk:
The risks arising out of various political, legal and economic factors which are under no control of the business organisation can be minimized by going international as the heterogeneity of government policies of different nations result in this risk reduction.
- Other advantages:
International trade helps in many other ways such as benefits to consumers, international peace and better standard of living.