Micro level includes:
- Individual level stress.
- Organizational level stress.
- Extra organizational level stress.
- Group level stress.
1) INDIVIDUAL LEVEL:
- Personality: Individual are of two types.
‘A’ type person are super energetic. They create stress for themselves and keep their thinking process going on all the time which keeps on increasing their stress
‘B’ type person are slow and believe in enjoying every moment. They know how to deal with stress and be calm while facing stress.
- Role overload: Role overload is the overburden of work. At times this can be the cause of individual’s stress. This can be copped up by efficiency of the employee and positive attitude towards the work.
- Role conflict: A situation in which a person is expected to play two incompatible roles. For example, a boss will suffer role conflict if forced to fire an employee who is also a close friend.
- Role ambiguity: Role ambiguity occurs when people are unclear or uncertain about their expectations within a certain role, typically their role in the job or workplace. Role ambiguity arises when the definition of the person’s job is vague or ill defined.
- Task characteristics: Task Characteristic is certain feature that is attributed to every particular item of work which can be alternatively called a work package, but we know it as simply a task. Task characteristic makes a task measurable and controllable, so you can clearly anticipate resources and methods you will need for completing it. When you describe a task you need some characteristics to express its profile and its features – these task characteristics make possible to evaluate and estimate a task e.g. an individuals decision making power, cost efficiency etc.
- Career Development: Career Development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future.
- Perception: Perceptions are based on beliefs, assumptions, values and conditioning. We can dramatically reduce our stress by changing our distorted perceptions. Our distorted thinking can exaggerate our perceived shortcomings. We often paint events much worse, than they actually are by our distorted thinking, this greatly increases our stress. changing distorted perceptions is an essential stress management tool.”
- Past Experience: A stress response that fails to return to a state of equilibrium becomes unresolved psychological/emotional trauma . Emotional or psychological trauma is the extreme end of the stress disorder continuum. It is stress run amuck –a deregulation of the nervous system that remains fixed and contributes to lifelong mental, emotional and physical disorders including anxiety and depression. Emotional or psychotically trauma can result from such common occurrences as an auto accident, the breakup of a significant relationship, a humiliating or deeply disappointing experience, the discovery of a life-threatening illness or disabling condition, or other similar situations. Traumatizing events can take a serious emotional toll on those involved, even if the event did not cause physical damage
- Social Support: Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and that one is part of a supportive social network.
- Locus of Control: Locus of control is the point of control. There are various factors that can affect an individual.
- Internal control- Internal control is when a person considers himself/herself responsible for the fault. In such situation person stays relaxed by nature and don’t bother himself/herself by thinking a lot about the same.
- External control- External control is when external factors are responsible for the fault. In such situation people start cribbing and blaming.
- Self-Efficiency: self-efficiency includes capability and ability of a person to deal with work. This can also depends on person to person.
2) ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL :
- Climate: An organizational climate refers to the conditions within an organization (surrounding and environment) as viewed by its employees. The word climate usually describes the practices involved in communication, conflict, leadership and rewards.
- Management styles: Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. There are two sharply contrasting styles that will be broken down into smaller subsets later: Autocratic Permissive Each style has its own characteristics:
Autocratic: Leader makes all decisions unilaterally.
Permissive: Leader permits subordinates to take part in decision making and also gives them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities.
- Organizational design: Design management encompasses the ongoing processes, business decisions, and strategies that enable innovation and create effectively-designed products, services, communications, environments, and brands that enhance our quality of life and provide organizational success.
- Organizational life cycle: Like human life cycle and product life cycle there is also a life cycle of organization. This life cycle includes 8 stages.
- Birth: This stage is the start up stage of any organization
- Growth: This stage is the stage where proper work takes place. This stage is also the stage for expansion of the organization or diversification.
- Policy: After having initiated the work process, the organization now formulates the policies to be followed by the members of organization. Policies are also formulated to cope up with the deviation noticed in working standards.
- Procedure: Procedures are different at different levels of organizational life cycle. These are the steps that take the organization close to it’s objective.
- Theory: This is the stage where the work related data is stated. This is applicable at all the stages as well. This theory keeps a record of all the data of the stages and all the time i.e. past, present, future.
- Religion: Like different religions, the work is also to be worshipped. The policies are to be maintained the way one follows the rules of a religion. Here the organization itself is termed as a Religion and the employees follow the same religion.
- Ritual: Productive performance is the ritual of the organization as a religion. Organization’s members are required to worship their work and prosper in the same.
- Rites: This is the stage where organization breaks down like the death stage of human life cycle. An organization may have to face such situation if not taken care of the market requirements and diversification of the product line.
- Organizational leadership: Organizational leadership is a dual focused management approach that works towards what is best for individuals and what is best for a group as a whole simultaneously. It is also an attitude and a work ethic that empowers an individual in any role to lead from the top, middle, or bottom of an organization
- Organizational structure: An organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.
3) EXTRA ORGANIZATIONALLEVEL: (OUTSIDE ORGANIZATION)
- Family: Love, passion, conflict, argument — it’s how we relate to each other. It’s how we bond and learn about one another. It’s how we develop as people and as a family.Whether it is an unexpected illness, bad grades, financial difficulties, or arguments over trash duty, it’s inevitable that each family will face stress together. Families who are prepared for these trying times emerge stronger and more prepared for future problems.
- Economy: During times of recession and economic downturn, individuals and families often experience heightened symptoms of stress – either from personally experiencing the effects of the crisis, or through fear that one’s own home, job or family will be the economy’s next victim.
- Lack of Mobility: Being less mobile can be frustrating, especially if you used to be very active. It can affect your quality of life as you become less able to do as many things as you used to. You may have additional physical and psychological problems as a result.For example, being less active may mean you: put on weight lose your appetite and possibly lose weight experience constipation more frequently experience a build-up of fluid in parts of your body develop more sensitive skin as you sit or lie in the same position for long periods of time start to lose muscle strength, so you find activities more difficult or tiring as you have less strength than before are more likely to experience depression
- Quality of Life: Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life. It observes life satisfaction, including everything from physical health, family, education, employment, wealth, religious beliefs, finance and the environment. QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, politics and employment. It is important not to mix up the concept of QOL with a more recent growing area of health related QOL (HRQOL). An assessment of HRQOL is effectively an evaluation of QOL and its relationship with health.Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income.
- Daily Hassel: Daily hassles are the small, day to day irritations, repeated many times, that drive us all crazy. Perhaps your printer jams or you lose your keys. You get stuck in traffic or there’s nothing to eat in the house. You get a traffic ticket or have a fine for paying your credit card late. Your spouse is grumpy or your kids don’t pick up their stuff. Your dog gets muddy or digs a hole in the yard. It starts raining heavily and you forgot your umbrella and couldn’t find a close parking spot. I can already feel you nodding your head. We can all relate to this litany of life’s everyday stresses.
Poor leadership and employee stress go hand in hand. The management staff of any business or organization is responsible for setting priorities for the staff, defining expectations, and generally making sure things run smoothly. If management is not fulfilling these responsibilities or is doing a poor job of fulfilling them, employee stress will be significantly higher. Some leaders just find fault in your work and no appreciation which de-motivates oneself and gradually the employees loses confidence and interest in work.Peer Pressure/Academic and Athletic Competition. We are all influenced by our peers, but in the case of children and teens, peer influence is particularly strong and often a cause of extreme stress. In order to feel like they fit in, children often try to act and think like their peers.